VIETNAM

STYLES & TITLES

continued from the previous page.

STYLES & TITLES:
Modern (since the reign of Emperor Bao Dai):
The Sovereign: [reign name] temple name [posthumous style], Nuoc Vietnam Hoang-De, i.e Emperor of Vietnam, with the style of His Imperial Majesty.
The consort of the Emperor: Hoang-Hau, i.e. Empress with the style of Her Imperial Majesty.
The mother of the Emperor: Hoang-Thai-Hau, i.e. Empress Dowager, with the style of Her Imperial Majesty.
The paternal grandmother of the Emperor: Thai-thuong Hoang-Hau, i.e. Grand Empress Dowager, with the style of Her Imperial Majesty.
The Heir Apparent: Dong-Cung Hoang-Thai, i.e. Crown Prince with the style of His Imperial Highness.
The sons of the Emperor: Prince (Cong) (family name) (generation name) (personal name), with the style of His Imperial Highness.
The daughters of the Emperor: Princess (Cong Chua) together with the style of Her Imperial Highness.

Traditional/Colonial period:
The sovereign: [reign name] temple name [posthumous style], Dai Nam Hoang-De, i.e King of Annam, with the style of His Majesty.
Note: although the wife of Emperor Bao Dai bore the title of Empress, this designation was exceptional. The consorts of previous rulers only enjoyed one of the four concubine grades and titles. The title of Empress being restricted to the mother and grandmother of a reigning monarch. The four grades of concubines were graded in nine ranks, as follows:
The mother of the Sovereign: Hoang-Thai-Hau, i.e. Empress Dowager.
The paternal grandmother of the Sovereign: Thai-thuong Hoang-Hau, i.e. Grand Empress Dowager.
The Heir Apparent: Dong-Cung Hoang-Thai, i.e. Crown Prince, with the style of His Highness.
The sons of an Emperor or King: (family name) (generation name) (personal name). Most of the sons of an Emperor or King received the title of Prince (Cong) and enjoyed the style of His Highness.
The grandsons of an Emperor or King, in the male line: (family name) (generation name) (personal name). Most of the grandsons of an Emperor or King received the title of Prince (Cong Tu) and enjoyed the style of His Highness.
Male members of the Imperial clan also received one of the senior titles of nobility, from the following descending list:
Emperor Minh Mang established the male generation names for the dynasty, beginning with his brothers, in the following order:
The daughters of an Emperor or King: Princess (Cong Chua) together with the style of Her Highness.
The grand daughters of an Emperor or King, in the male line: Princess (Cong Nu) together with the style of Her Highness.
The great grand daughters of an Emperor or King, in the male line: Cong Ton-Nu:
The other female descendants of an Emperor or King, in the fourth generation of the male line: Cong Tang Ton-Nu:
The other female descendants of an Emperor or King, in the fifth generation of the male line: Cong Huyen Ton-Nu:
 
END.
 
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