BURMA

ORDERS & DECORATIONS:
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers
The Kingdom of Burma.
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers
The Burmese Kings never instituted any orders or decorations on the western model. They had a traditional decoration of honour, known as a salwe. King Bodawpaya Hsinbyumyashin issued Royal Orders, describing and regulating the award on 3rd June 1784. The insignia consisted of a gold chain, formed of several strands, fastened together in four places with shields or bosses. The chain was worn over the left shoulder and across the breast, towards the right hip, similar to the sash of an order of chivalry*. The rank of the recipient determined the maximum number of strands:
 

A gold Salwe of 24 strands

* Several Western authors, particularly continental ones writing in the nineteenth century, mistakenly described the Salwe as "the Order of the Salwe", as if it were comparable to an order of chivalry or merit. This has been repeated by some modern authors, but more often by modern numismatic societies and medal collectors. However, this assumption is entirely mistaken. Salwes are worn extensively as part of the traditional formal dress of Buddhist rulers, princes and high ranking personages. This is common, not only in Burma, but throughout South-East Asia, particularly in Thailand and Laos. They frequently adorn statues and images of the Buddha.
 

A gold Salwe of 12 strands

British Burma. Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers
The Order of Burma: founded by Royal Warrant on 10th May 1940. Conferred in a single class to reward long, faithful and distinguished service by Governor's Commissioned Officers of the Burma military forces, the Burma auxiliary military forces, the frontier and the military police. Extended to reward immediate acts of gallantry, or particularly meritorious services, on 11th September 1945. The decoration consisted of a neck badge, worn suspended from a ribbon of deep green edged with sky blue. Recipients were entitled to the post-nominal letters OB. There were only 33 awards in total, making this one of the rarest decorations ever instituted by the crown. Obsolete 1948.
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers

The Order of Burma - neck badge

The Burma Gallantry Medal: instituted by Royal Warrant on 10th May 1940. Conferred upon Governor's Commissioned Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers and other ranks of the Burma military, frontier and military police forces to reward acts of personal bravery in peace or on active service. The decoration consisted of a circular silver medal, suspended from a medal ribbon on the left breast. Bars were awarded for additional acts of gallantry. Recipients were entitled to the post-nominal letters BGM and received a monetary allowance. The number of awards totalled 180. Obsolete 1948.
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers

The Burma Gallantry Medal - obverse (L) and reverse (R)

Aga Maha Pandita ('the Great Learned One'): instituted by the Viceroy of India on 1st January 1915. A title of honour awarded to learned Buddhist monks and teachers. Recipients were entitled to the post-nominal letters AMP. Retained by the government of the Union of Burma after 1948.
Kyet thaye zaung shwe Salwe ya Min (Recipient of the Gold Chain of Honour): instituted by the Viceroy of India on 6th June 1885. Awarded in a single class, to Burmese gentlemen of British Burma, for exceptionally distinguished service to the state. The decoration consisted of a gold chain of several strands, fastened together in four places with shields or bosses, and worn over the left shoulder, across the breast with the large bosse resting on the right hip. Recipients were entitled to the post-nominal letters KSM. The number of awards totalled 221. Obsolete 1948.
Thuye gaung ngwe Da ya Min (Recipient of the Silver Sword of Bravery): instituted by the Viceroy of India on 6th June 1885. Awarded in a single class to reward gallant or distingusihed service, particularly, but not restricted to, military and police personnel. The decoration consisted of a silver ceremonial dar or Burmese short sword, with an elaborately carved ivory handle. Recipients were entitled to the post-nominal letters TDM. The number of awards totalled 158. Obsolete 1948.
Ahmudan gaung Tazeik ya Min (Recipient of the Medal for Good Service): instituted by the Viceroy of India on 6th June 1885. Awarded in a single class, to reward good and faithful service. The decoration consisted of a large circular gold medal worn around the neck and suspended from a ribbon. Recipients were entitled to the post-nominal letters ATM. The number of awards totalled 501. Obsolete 1948.
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers

Ahmudan gaung Tazeik ya Min (ATM) - obverse

Taing kyo Pyi kyo Saung (One who has promoted the welfare of his Country): founded by the Viceroy of India on 18th December 1916. Awarded in a single class to Burmese gentlemen who "though holding no official position, have shown public spirit or generosity, or have worked in the interests of education, agriculture or other public objects". The decoration consisted of a large circular gold medal. Recipients were entitled to the post-nominal letters TPS. The number of awards totalled 195. Obsolete 1948.
The Burma Police Medal: instituted by Royal Warrant on 14th December 1937. Awarded in a single class to members of the Burma civil and military Police Forces, the Frontier Force, and the Fire Brigade who have performed services of conspicuous merit or gallantry. The decoration consisted of a circular bronze medal, suspended from a medal ribbon on the left breast. Limited to a maximum of 25 awards per annum, gallantry excluded. Bars were awarded for additional acts of gallantry. The number of awards totalled 141. Obsolete 1948.
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers

The Burma Police Medal (for conspicuous merit) - obverse (L) and reverse (R)

The Union of Burma. Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers
Thiri Thudhamma Thingaha (the Most Glorious Order of Truth): founded on 2nd September 1948. Awarded in two divisions (military and civil) and three classes (1. Agga Maha Thiri Thudhamma - Grand Commander, 2. Sado Thiri Thudhamma - Grand Officer, and 3. Maha Thiri Thudhamma - Companion).The first class consisted of a gold braided salwe worn over the left shoulder, across the breast with the large bosse resting on the right hip, with the two badges of the order suspended over the left breast. Also a large gold enamelled breast star. The second class, a single, breast star similar to the first class but smaller. Third class a badge, worn from a ribbon around the neck.
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers

Agga Maha Thiri Thudhamma - gold salwe with the two badges of the order.

Pyidaungsu Sithu Thingaha (the Order of the Union of Burma): founded on 2nd September 1948. Awarded in two divisions (military and civil), five classes (1. Agga Maha Thray Sithu - Grand Commander, 2. Sado Maha Thray Sithu - Grand Officer, 3. Maha Thray Sithu - Commander, 4. Thray Sithu - Officer, and 5. Sithu - Member), and a single medal in silver (Sithu Tazeit). The first class consisted of a gold braided salwe - worn across the breast with two badges of the order attached (in place of a traditional bosse), suspended over the left shoulder, across the breast with the large bosse resting on the right hip, with the two badges of the order suspended over the left breast. Also a large gold and enamelled breast star, a large star surrounded by five small stars. 2nd class, a single, breast star but smaller than the first class. 3rd class a badge, worn from a ribbon around the neck. 4th and 5th classes, a badge worn on a ribbon suspended from a medal bar.
The Star of the Revolution: instituted on the 3rd of November 1953. Awarded in three grades to those who had participated in the struggle for national independence, either in the military or political sphere but limited to three periods of service: 6th January - 26th July 1942, 27th July 1942 - 26th March 1945, and from 27th March to 15th August 1945. Those who participated in all three periods received the first grade, those who participated in any two periods received the second, and those who participated in one received the third grade. The decoration consists of a gold breast star of five points with a smaller five-pointed gold star thereon. In the centre, on a circular shield, a blue enamelled peacock in its prime. Obsolete since March 1962.
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers

The Star of the Revolution

Titles of Honour: designed as replacements for the specifically Burmese titles awarded during the British period. Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers
Naing-ngant Gyongi: Awarded to those who rendered distinguished service in the national liberation movements from the socialist era to the era of socialist construction. Awarded in two classes (1. First class - round disk in gold bearing an image of a sun in splendour in the middle, surrounded by a wreath around the edge, all surrounded by a star of ten points, six with long rays, and four short in between. At the top a suspension device including two sprigs of foliage. Worn from a neck ribbon of yellow edged in sepia. 2. Second class - similar to the first class, only smaller).
Pyidaungsu Tagun: instituted by the socialist government and awarded in three classes (1. Pyidaungsu Tagun - twenty-pointed star in silver-gilt with ten long sharp points of equal length and ten shorter sharp points of equal length, all with rays. In the centre a circular disk bearing a map of burma in relief and surrounded by fourteen small stars, all surrounded by a raised wreath. At the top a suspension device, including two sprigs of foliage. Worn from a neck ribbon of light blue edged in yellow. 2. Aung San Tagun - twenty-pointed star in silver-gilt with ten long sharp points of equal length and ten shorter sharp points of equal length, all with rays. In the centre, a circular disk bearing an image of Aung San in relief and surrounded by a raised wreath. At the top a suspension device, including two sprigs of foliage. Worn from a neck ribbon of light blue edged in yellow, with a narrow central stripe in yellow. 3. Tagun - twenty-pointed star in silver-gilt with ten long sharp points of equal length and ten shorter sharp points of equal length, all with rays.  In the centre, a circular disk bearing an image of the state coat-of-arms in relief and surrounded by a raised wreath. At the top a suspension device, including two sprigs of foliage. Worn from a neck ribbon of light blue with a narrow central stripe in yellow.
Pyidaungsu Zarni: instituted by the socialist government and awarded in three classes (1. Pyidaungsu Zarni - ten-pointed star in silver-gilt with sharp points of equal length, all with rays. In the centre a circular disk bearing a map of Burma in relief and surrounded by fourteen small stars, all surrounded by a raised wreath. At the top a suspension device including two sprigs of foliage. Worn from a neck ribbon of red edged in yellow. 2. Lanzin Zarni - ten-pointed star in silver-gilt with sharp points of equal length, all with rays. In the centre a circular disk bearing two five pointed stars in relief , one over the other and surrounded by a raised wreath. At the top a suspension device, including two sprigs of foliage. Worn from a neck ribbon of red edged in yellow, with a narrow central stripe in yellow. 3. Zarni - ten-pointed star in silver-gilt with sharp points of equal length, all with rays. In the centre, a circular disk bearing an image of the state coat-of-arms in relief and surrounded by a raised wreath. At the top a suspension device, including two sprigs of foliage. Worn from a neck ribbon of red with a narrow central stripe in yellow.
Aung Sun Thuriya (the Sun of Aung Sun): instituted 2nd September 1948 as the foremost military decoration for gallantry. Awarded in a single class to reward the gallantry of the highest category, in the face of the enemy. The decoration is in stainless steel and consists of a stylised sun in splendour (thuriya) 1.5 inches in diameter, worn suspended from a medal ribbon on the left breast. Ribbon: vermillion red with two vertical gold lines. Retained by the socialist regime but altered to a gold star of sixteen sharp points, with rays, and a circular disk in the centre with a sun in splendour, and a raised band surround. Worn from a neck ribbon of red with dark blue borders.
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers
Aung San Tazeit
: instituted 2nd September 1948 as the foremost civilian decoration for gallantry. Awarded for acts of conspicuous courage or great heroism. The decoration was intended as a replacement for the British George Cross and ranks immediately after the Aung San Thuriya. Oval shaped medal in steel with a profile bust of Aung San within a wreath of Aung Thabye leaves along the edge. Ribbon: vermillion red with a vertical stripe of royal blue.
Thiha Thura Tazeit: instituted 2nd September 1948 as the second highest military decoration for gallantry. Intended to replace the British Distinguished Service Order (DSO) and the Distinguished Conduct Medal (DCM). The insignia consists of a stylised chinthe in bronze, facing outwards, resting on a scroll inscribed with Thiha Thura in Burmese. Ribbon: vermillion red edged in gold. Retained by the socialist regime but altered to a gold circular disk edged in a wreath, in the centre an eight pointed star with rays surrounding another round disk in the centre with a sun in splendour, and a raised band surround. Worn from a neck ribbon of red with a central stripe of dark blue.
Thiha Bala Tazeit: instituted 2nd September 1948 as the second highest civilian decoration for gallantry to rewarded acts of conspicuous courage or heroism, not meriting the Aung San Tazeit. Intended as a replacement for the British George Medal (GM) and ranking immediately after the Aung San Thuriya. The insignia consists of a stylised chinthe in bronze, facing outwards, resting on a scroll inscribed with Thiha Bala in Burmese. Ribbon: vermillion red edged in royal blue.
Thura Tazeit: instituted 2nd September 1948 as the third highest military decoration for gallantry. Intended to replace the British Military Cross (MC) and Military Medal (MM). An emblem of a rising sun after Burmese conception embossed in silver, with eight enamelled and pointed rays. Ribbon: vermillion red edged in gold and a further gold stripe in the centre. Retained by the socialist regime but altered to a gold circular disk similar to the Thiha Thura, only smaller and with a much smaller round disk within the star. Worn from a neck ribbon of red with a central stripe of dark blue, and borders of dark blue.
Sit Hmu Htan Gaung Tazeit: instituted 2nd September 1948 as a reward for long, faithful and honourable service by members of the regular military forces. Awarded on three classes (Class I - Lieutenant-Colonels and above. Class II - other commissioned officers, and Class III - other ranks, also granted a monetary award). Class I - a Burmese bayet with three layers embossed in silver, with two crossed spears on the topmost layer. Ribbon: yellow with a vertical green stripe in the centre. Class II - a Burmese bayet with two layers embossed in silver, with two crossed spears on the topmost layer. Ribbon: edged in green. Class III - a Burmese bayet with one layer embossed in silver, with two crossed spears on the topmost layer. Ribbon: edged in green with a green stripe in the centre.
Copyrightę Christopher Buyers Copyrightę Christopher Buyers
MAIN
 
I would be grateful to hear from anyone who may have changes, corrections or additions to contribute. If you do, please be kind enough to send me an e-mail using the contact details at: Copyrightę Christopher Buyers
 
CONTACT

Copyrightę Christopher Buyers, December 2002 - July 2008


4dw.net

¤­ţŔšÔţńŔý Ýňńţ­ţŃŔň ŕţݲ­Óŕ˛Ýűň ńÔŔŃÓ˛ňŰŔ ࡴŔ˛Ř ýţŠÝţ ÝÓ ÝÓ°ňý ˝ÓÚ˛ň, Ýňńţ­ţŃţ. . http://delfin-aqua.com.ua/komplektuyushchie.html
Dreamwater Free Web Space