MOSQUITOS

CopyrightThe Flag Research Center (USA)

BRIEF HISTORY

166X 1686     Oldman*, King of the Mosquito Nation. Son of an unnamed King of the Mosquito Nation who had been taken to England by the Earl of Warwick and received in audience by King Charles I in 1634, was befriended by that sovereign, and returned to the Mosquito Shore in 1637 (Colonel Lewis Morris, the progenitor of the famous New Jersey family having acted as hostage during his absence), finding that his father had died, succeeded immediately as King in his stead. Oldham himself went to England and was received at court by King Chares II in 1666. Granted a crown and other items, they eventually formed part of the regalia, 1644. He d. 1686, having had issue:
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* Some sources seem to suggest that his actual name may have been Oldham, rather than Oldman. Perhaps the latter and more popular spelling may be due to a misreading of contemporary seventeenth century handwriting.
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1686 1718      Jeremy I, King of the Mosquito Nation. b. ca. 1639, son of Oldman, King of the Mosquito Nation. Succeeded on the death of his father, 1686. He visited Jamaica in February 1688 and requested English protection. Confirmed and invested with a commission by the Duke of Albemarle, Governor of Jamaica. During his reign, the Mosquitos made their first recorded attack on Spanish settlements in 1699. He d. ca. 1718, having had issue:
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1718 - 1729 H.M. Jeremy II, King of the Mosquito Nation, eldest son of Jeremy I, King of the Mosquito Nation. Entered into the first formal agreement with the British Governor Sir Nicholas Lawes, at St Jago de la Vega, Jamaica, on 25th June 1720, when he agreed to supply a contingent to suppress an outbreak by the Maroons in Jamaica. He d. from smallpox contacted when the Miskitos attacked Yucatn, before 3rd October 1729, having had issue, several sons, including:
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1729  1755      H.M. Edward I, By the Grace of God King of the Mosquito Nation. b. 1721, eldest son of H.M. Jeremy II, King of the Mosquito Nation, educ. privately. Succeeded on the death of his father as King Elect, before 3rd October 1729. Reigned under the regency of his paternal uncle, King Regent Peter until he came of age and petitioned the British Governor of Jamaica for a commission, 19th May 1739. Accepted baptism for himself, his family and the people of his district. Crowned at Spanish Town, Jamaica, 16th March 1740 (when he also accepted British protection, concluded a Treaty of Friendship and Alliance, and accepted the English Common Law as the law of the land within his domains). He invited the Soc for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts (SPG) to establish a mission in 1742, allowing ministers to preach the gospel and teachers to educate his family and people. He d. at Sandy Bay, January 1755, having had issue:
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1755 1776      H.M. George I, By the Grace of God King of the Mosquito Nation, second son of H.M. Jeremy II, King of the Mosquito Nation, educ. by Soc for the Propagation of the Gospel, Sandy Bay. Crowned at Sandy Bay, February 1755. Baptised with his Queen by the Rev Thomas Warren 1773. Visited Jamaica in 1774 and received a commission of recognition from Governor Edward Trelawny. He established a Legislative Council in 1775 and a Court of Common Pleas in 1776. He d. from smallpox, during an epidemic that hit the Mosquito Coast, at Sandy Bay, January 1776, having had issue:
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1776 1800      H.M. George Frederic Augustus I, By the Grace of God King of the Mosquito Nation. b. at Sandy Bay, 1757, eldest son of H.M. George I, King of the Mosquito Nation, educ. SPG Mission, Sandy Bay. Baptised by the Rev Thomas Warren at Sandy Bay 1773. Visited England together with his uncle, November 1774-January 1776. Succeeded on the death of his father, soon after his return from London in January 1776. Crowned by the Rev Thomas Warren at Black River in March 1777. Suspended by the Governor of Jamaica October 1778-November 1779. Served with British forces against the Spanish during the American Revolutionary Wars 1779-1783 and signally defeated a Spanish force sent against Black River in 1796. A cruel and despotic ruler, who enslaved Indians from the Blanco, Kukra and Ulwa tribes and ill-treated his many wives and servants in a violent and barbarous manner. m. twenty-two wives. He was k. (assassinated) by the friends of one of his wives, whom he had killed with particularly barbarity, at Cape Gracias Dios, October 1800, having had issue by different wives:
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1800 1824      H.M. George Frederic Augustus II, By the Grace of God King of the Mosquito Nation. b. at The Ridge, Cape Gracias Dios, 1797, elder son of King George Frederic Augustus I, King of the Mosquito Nation, educ. at Spanish Town, Jamaica. Succeeded on the death of his father, October 1800. Reigned under the Regency of his uncle, Prince Stephen. Declared of age, and received the oath of submission from the regents and chiefs, at Woollang, 14th November 1815. Crowned by the Rev John Armstrong and invested with a sceptre, sword and spurs at the Church of St John the Baptist, Belize, 18th January 1816. Hon Major The Prince Regents Royal Honduras Militia 1816. m. several wives. He d. (strangled by his wife and body thrown into the sea), at Cape Gracias Dios, 9th March 1824, having had issue, two or three sons:
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1824 1841      H.M. Robert Charles Frederic, By the Grace of God King of the Mosquito Nation. b. at The Ridge, Cape Gracias Dios, 1800, younger son of son of King George Frederic Augustus I, King of the Mosquito Nation, educ. at Belize and Spanish Town, Jamaica. Succeeded on the death of his elder half-brother, 9th March 1824. Crowned by Bishop Lipscombe at the Church of St John the Baptist, Belize, 23rd April 1825. Received the uniform of a Post Captain in the RN 1825. Forbade the taking of people into slavery 1st November 1832 and proclaimed the total abolition of slavery 27th August 1841. m. (first) H.M. Queen Juliana, daughter of General Thomas Lowry Robinson, who defeated the Spanish invasion of 1796, sometime Regent for King George Augustus Frederick. m. (second) Joanna, a junior wife. He d. at Kings House, Waslala, Rio Coco, 8th October 1841, having had issue, three sons and three daughters:
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* These two princes have been confused as a single individual as a consequence of an error in the writings of E.G. Squier (pseudonym Samuel A. Bard), who omitted a comma when listing the Kings sons in his attempt to reproduce the late Kings published testimony of 1840. the Princes George, William Clarence and Alexander being transposed by Squier as the Princes George William Clarence and Alexander He then continued the error in all his subsequent writings, along with a number of other important mistakes on dates and people, place names, geographical features and locations. Thereby confusing  a good many others who followed in his wake and who depended too heavily on his supposed knowledge of the people and customs of the region. It is now almost certain that Squier never so much as set a single foot on the Mosquito Coast, let alone Bluefields or met her king. Although respected for his earlier work as an archaeologist in northern America, he later entangled himself in Central American politics and had interests in the US ambitions for a canal in the region. He was declared insane in 1874 and has since been exposed as a propagandist of the worst kind, in relation to most of his writings on Central America. Like a lot of American writers of the period on the Mosquito, Haiti and other places, Squier is full of condescending bile and mockery on all things non-white.
 
1841 1865      H.M. George Augustus Frederic, By the Grace of God King of the Mosquito Nation. b. at Kings House, Cape Gracias Dios, 1832, eldest son of H.M. Robert Charles Frederic, King of the Mosquito Nation, by his wife, H.M. Queen Juliana, daughter of General Thomas Lowry Robinson, educ. Moravian Mission Sch, Bluefields, Honduras Free Sch, Belize, and in Kingston, Jamaica. Nominated as Heir Apparent by his father, in his testament deed dated 25th February 1840. Proclaimed as King of the Mosquito Nation on his death, 8th October 1841. Reigned under a Council of Regency composed of Prince Wellington, General Thomas Lowry Robinson and Colonel Johnson, 1842-1845. Removed his capital to Bluefields in 1844. Crowned by The Hon & Rev Dr Matthew Newport at the Church of St John the Baptist, Belize, 7th May 1845. Constituted the Council of State 10th September 1846 to advise him and to conduct the government of the country. Forced to change his title from King to Hereditary Chief of Mosquito as a consequence of the Treaty of Managua, 28th January 1860. Proclaimed the Municipal Constitution of the Mosquito Reserve 12th September 1861. Received the uniform of a post Captain, RN (or Hon Capt in the Royal Honduras Flotilla?) 1845. Hon Major The Prince Regents Royal Honduras Militia. Colonel-in-Chief Royal Bluefields Militia 1845-1865. A refined and cultured gentleman who, according to Captain Bedford Pym spoke English so perfectly, without the least trace of a foreign accent, that it was better than any he had encountered out of England. m. after 1860, a creole lady. He d.s.p. legit. at Kings House, Bluefields, 27th November 1865, having had issue, several sons (all deemed ineligible to succeed him because their mother was not of pure Indian stock).
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1865 1879      H.E. Prince William Henry Clarence, Hereditary Chief of Mosquito. b. at Bluefields, 5th May 1856, eldest son of Princess Victoria, daughter of H.M. Robert Charles Frederic, King of the Mosquito Nation, educ. at the Moravian Mission, Great Corn Island and privately at Kingston, Jamaica. Appointed as Heir Apparent by his maternal uncle and granted the title of Hereditary Prince ca 1860. Succeeded on his death as Hereditary Chief of Mosquito, 27th November 1865 (unanimously confirmed by the General Council, 27th May 1866). Refused recognition by the Nicaraguan authorities who also declined to pay him the subsidy they had agreed to under the terms of the Treaty of Managua. Reigned under a Council of Regency until he came of age 5th May 1874 and was invested with full ruling powers, 22nd September 1874. Colonel-in-Chief Royal Bluefields Militia 1865-1879. m. a lady from Rama. He d. (poisoned by a Nicaraguan Spaniard), at Kings House, Bluefields, 5th May 1879, having had issue, a son:
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1879 1888      H.E. Prince George William Albert Hendy, Hereditary Chief of Mosquito. Proclaimed as Hereditary Chief after the death of his cousin, following election by the General Council, 23rd May 1879. Received into the Moravian Church and formally baptised on the day of his proclamation. Formally installed at Bluefields, 17th June 1879. Colonel-in-Chief Royal Bluefields Militia 1879-1888. Dir The Mosquito Coast newspaper 1887-1888. He d. suddenly in an accident at Pearl Cay Lagoon, 8th November 1888 (succ. by his cousin).
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1888 1889 [1894 & 1894-1914] H.E. Andrew Hendy, Hereditary Chief of Mosquito. Proclaimed by the Nicaraguans on the death of his cousin, 8th November 1888. Repudiated by the Mosquito and abdicated in favour of his cousin, 8th March 1889. Retired to Nicaraguan territory where he became a Miskitu Jefe Inspector and River Magistrat. He was subsequently chosen as a rival Chief of the Mosquito by General Rigoberto Cabezas deposed Robert Henry Clarence in 1894. Reappointed for the third time and formally installed at the Government Palace, Bluefields, 20th November 1894. Accepted as chief by his own relatives and some groups of Mosquito who resided in Rio Coco within traditional Nicaraguan territory, but opposed by the vast majority on the Mosquito Coast, who saw him as a Nicaraguan stooge and rebelled against both in 1896, 1899 and 1900. On both occasions petitioning fo the return of their rightful King, Robert Henry Clarence. m. two wives. He d. at Rayapura, Rio Wangki, 1914, having had issue, at least three sons (two of whom were educated by the Nicaraguan government in Managua, a third in the USA).
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1889 1890      H.E. Prince Jonathan Charles Frederick, Hereditary Chief of Mosquito. b. at Lyasiksa, North Mosquito, 1865, eldest son of H.H. Princess Matilda, second daughter of H.M. Robert Charles Frederic, King of the Mosquito Nation, by a junior wife, educ. at the Moravian Mission, Great Corn Island. Elected as successor to his cousin by the chiefs and nobles of the Mosquito Nation, 7th March 1888. Formally proclaimed and installed as Hereditary Chief of Mosquito, at Government House, Bluefields, 8th March 1889. Colonel-in-Chief Royal Bluefields Militia 1889-1890. He d. from an inflammation of the liver, resulting from a fall from and kick by his horse five days earlier, at Kings House, Bluefields, 11th November 1890 (bur. there at Blakesly Hill Cemetery).
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1890 [1908]   H.E. Prince Robert Henry Clarence, Hereditary Chief of Mosquito. b. at Rama Cay, Bluefields Lagoon, 6th September 1872, son of H.E. Prince William Henry Clarence, Hereditary Chief of Mosquito, by a lady from Rama, educ. Moravian Mission Sch, Bluefields. Proclaimed as Hereditary Chief of Mosquito following election by the General Council, 29th January 1891 (with effect from 11th November 1890). Crowned at Pearl City, 24th March 1891. Reigned under the guardian ship of The Hon Charles Patterson, Vice-Presdt of the Council, until he came of age and assumed full ruling powers, 6th September 1893. Deposed 12th February 1894, after Bluefields was invaded and occupied by Nicaraguan troops. Restored after British intervention induced them to retire in 6th July 1894. Deposed again after a second invasion, when all American and British residents were forcibly removed to Managua and the town of Bluefields reduced to 500 souls, 7th August 1894. Rescued by a British warship which took him into exile together with 200 refugees to Puerto Limon, Costa Rica, and later to Jamaica. Granted a pension by the British government of 1,785 per annum. He was repeatedly petitioned by his countrymen to return to the Mosquito Coast and resume his reign, being regarded by them throughout his exile as their "rightful King", and in whose favour at least three rebellions were mounted against the Nicaraguan government. Colonel-in-Chief Royal Bluefields Militia 1890-1894. m. Irene Morrison. He d. after an operation at the Public General Hospital, Kingston, Jamaica, 6th January 1908 (bur. there), having had issue, an only daughter:
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[1909]  Robert Frederick, Heir Apparent to the Mosquito Kingdom. b. ca. 1855, son of Princess Matilda, daughter of H.M. Robert Charles Frederic, King of the Mosquito Nation. Succeeded on the death of his cousin, as Heir Apparent to the Mosquito Kingdom, 6th January 1908? He d. at Aubrayeri, Wanks River, Honduras, after 1928.
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[In 1977]  Norton Cuthbert Clarence, Heir Apparent to the Mosquito Kingdom. Proprietor of a pool hall in Pearl Key in 1977, interviewed by a visiting linguist who reported that he was regarded as the legitimate heir to the kingdom. Possibly a grandson of Robert Henry Clarence (same as Morton?).
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According to one source, a certain Herbert Henry Clarence was supposed to be next in line to be King. He left a Daughter who was born in 1949, who would have carried on this legacy and she has two sons, the first born who would carry on the tradition: Sean Henry Clarence.
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END.
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MOSQUITO 1
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I would be grateful to hear from anyone who may have changes, corrections or additions to contribute. Please contact me at:
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CopyrightChristopher Buyers, June 2002 - September 2010


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