Ako: "brother", a suffix title bestowed on the male line descendants of Emperor Taizu, 14th March 1635. In time this came to mean prince. Aisin Gioro (Ai-hsin Chiao-lo): "golden clan", the name first used for the Imperial clan in 1612. Used as a surname after the communist revolution in 1949, often misused as the name for the dynasty (see Ta Ch'ing Ch'ao). Chai Kung: Palace of Fasting. Ch'ang Ch'un Kung: the Palace of Extended Springtime, used by the E-erh Tet'e Shu Fei. Ch'ang Tsai: female attendant, a lady of the sixth rank within the Emperor's household. Chang T'ou: 'he who is above' or 'the enthroned one', a term of address for the Emperor. Chang Tzu: the title borne by the heir apparent of a prince of the second rank. Chên Kuo: "guarding the dynasty". Chên Kuo Chiang Chün: "noble guarding the dynasty", the title of a Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the ninth rank. Chi Ch'ing Hsien: the Pavilion of Clearing Skies, in the Summer Palace. Ch'i Tu Yü: title of hereditary nobility of the eighth rank, not usually translated.
Chia-ching: high felicity.
Chiao T'ai Tien: the Hall of Blending the Great Creative Forces. Chien Fu Kung: the Palace of Established Happiness. Chien Kuo Shê Chêng Wang: Lieutenant of the Empire and Prince Regent. Chien-lung: enduring glory. Ch'ien-ch'ing Kung: the Palace of Heavenly Purity, or Cloudless Heaven.
Ch'in-kuo Khan: the title of the supreme Ch'ing rulers before they adopted that of Emperor. Ch'ing Ch'e Tu Yü: title of hereditary nobility of the seventh rank, not usually translated but equivalent to Baronet.
Chio Lo: collateral relatives of the Imperial clan. Chu Tzu: "the master", or "the lord", a popular appellation for the Emperor.
Ch'u Hsiu Kung: the Palace of Treasured Beauty, used by the Empress Hsiao Hung-ch'iu [Kuo-chia]. Chuang-yuan: one who has attained the highest academic distinction under the old Confucian examination system. Chün Chu Kung Chu (also Ho She Ko Ko): the title of a Princess of the Blood of the fifth rank. Chün Chün Kung Chu (also To Lo Ko Ko): the title of a Princess of the Blood of the seventh rank. Chung Ho Tien: the Hall of Central Harmony. Chung Kuo: China. Chung-t'ang: Grand Counsellor. Jia Pin: the Honourable E Fu: Imperial son-in-law, part of the title of the husband of an Imperial Princess. Ên Ch'i Yü: title of hereditary nobility of the tenth rank, not usually translated. Fei: consort-in-ordinary. fêng: the Chinese mythical bird equated to a phoenix, which served as the symbol of the Empress. Fêng Ên: "by Imperial favour". Fêng Ên Chên Kuo Kung: "defender prince by Imperial favour", the title of a Prince of the Blood of the fifth rank. Fêng Ên Chiang Chün: "noble by Imperial favour", the title of a Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the twelfth rank. Fêng Ên Fu Kuo Kung: "bulwark prince by Imperial favour". Prince of the Blood of sixth rank. Fêng Hsien Tien: Chapel of the Ancestors. Fêng Kuo: "serving the dynasty". Fêng Kuo Chiang Chün: "noble serving the dynasty", the title of a Noble of the Imperial Lineage of the eleventh rank. Fu: high office, ministry, or palace. Fu Chin: "great consort", the title borne by the senior consort of a Prince of the first or second ranks and translated as Princess. Fu Jen: the title borne by the senior consort of a Prince of the third or fourth ranks and translated as Princess. Fu Kuo: "assisting the dynasty". Fu Kuo Chiang Chün: the title of a Noble of the Imperial Lineage in the tenth rank. Han: one of the five great nationalities of the Empire, the most numerous and original population of China Han Lin Yuen: Imperial Academy of Han Lin, the office in charge of the redaction of governmental decrees, of honorific titles, of the biography of illustrious men and of historical documentation. Ho Shê Ch'in Wang: originally Ho Shê Pei Lê (from the Manchu, Hosoi=region, locality). The title of a Prince of the Blood of the first rank, usually conferred on the sons of Emperors by an Empress. Ho Shê Kung Chu: the title of a Princess of the Blood of the first rank, usually conferred on the daughters of an Emperor, born to an Imperial Concubine. Ho Shê Pei Lê (see Ho Shê Ch'in Wang). Ho Shê To Lo Pei Lê (see To Lo Chün Wang).
HsiiHua Mên: the Gate of Western Glory. HsiiNuan Ko: the Western Warm Pavilion. Hsieh Ch'u Yüan: the Garden of Harmonious Delight, in the Summer Palace. HsienFei: Virtuous Secondary Consort of the second rank, second grade. Hsien Feng: universal plenty. Hsieng Chün Kung Chu (or Fêng Ên Ko Ko): the title of a Princess of the Blood of the ninth rank. Hsiao Chin Hsien Hong Hu: "brilliant Empress, piously venerated". Hsien Chu Kung Chu (or To Lo Ko Ko): the title of a Princess of the Blood of the sixth rank. Hsien Chün Kung Chu (or Ku Shan Ko Ko): the title of Princess of the Blood of the eighth rank. Hsuan Tung: proclamation of fundamental principles. Hu: hereditary title of nobility of the third rank, translated as Marquess. Hu Chün: palace guard. Hu Fu: Finance Ministry. Huang: Imperial. Huang Chang: Imperial Majesty. Huang Ch'êng: Imperial City. Huang Hou: Empress. Huang Kuei Fei: Imperial Consort of the first rank. Huang T'ai Fei: Imperial Dowager Consort of the first rank.
Huang T'ai Hou: Dowager Empress. Huang T'ai Tzu: Imperial Heir Apparent. Huang Tzu: "Imperial Son", or Prince, the usual designation of the son of an Emperor before he has been granted a princedom. Huang Ti: Illustrious Emperor. Hung T'ai Tzu: red girdle. Juelo: the suffix title borne by the distantly related kinsmen of the Imperial house. They were entitled to wear the red belt and not normally entitled to receive princely rank. K'ang Hsi: "unalterable peace". K'ang Teh: "tranquillity and virtue". Ko Ko: Lady. Kowtow: the act of obeisance to the Emperor. Ku Lun Kung Chu: "state princess", the title granted to a daughter of an Emperor, borne of an Empress. Ku Shan Kung Chu: the title of a Princess of the Blood of the fourth rank. Ku Shan Pei Tzu: "prince of the banner", the title of a Prince of the Blood of the fourth rank. Kuan-shih-ti: steward or major-domo. Kuang-hsü: "bright order".
Kuei Fei: Honoured Secondary Consort of the second rank, first grade.
Kun Chih Ku: State or, Imperial Council, one of the two supreme government bodies of the Empire. The other being the Grand Secretariat Kung: a title usually translated as Duke, but more correctly Prince. Kung (different character to the above): palace. Kung Chu: Princess. Kung Fu: Public Works Ministry. Kung Nü: maid servant. K'un-ning Kung: the Palace of Tranquil Earth. Kuo Mu: "mother of the state", a title of repect used for the Empress Dowager. Li Fu: Home Ministry. Li Yu Chin: "jade lute". Long Yu: "honourable abundance". lung: the five-clawed dragon, reserved for use by, and served as the symbol of the Emperor. Manchu-kuo: the Manchu State, i.e. Manchuria. Manchu-kuo Huang-Ti: Emperor of Manchuria, the title of the Ch'ing rulers before they took control of Peking. Manchu-ti-kuo: the Empire of the Manchu State. Miao-hao: the Emperor's posthumous temple name. Mou Ch'in Tien: the Hall of Industrious Energy. Nan, hereditary title of nobility of the sixth rank, translated as Baron.
Nei-t'ing: inner court. Nei Wu Fu: Imperial Household Department. Nien-hao: the reign name of an Emperor. Nü Kuan: Lady-in-Waiting.
Pa T'u Lu (B'at'uru in Manchu, Bahadur or Baghadur in Mongol): "brave", a title conferred for active service in the field and accompanied by an honorific epiphet (e.g. I Ni Yung Pa T'u Lu) together with the right to wear the peacock feather. This title is identical to the title of Bahadur, as conferred in India. Pan Shih Ta Ch'en: Imperial Commissioner. Pi Hsia: "beneath the footstool", a style equivalent to "Your Majesty". Pin: concubine. Ping Fu: War Ministry. Po, hereditary title of nobility of the fourth rank, translated as Earl PRC: People's Republic of China. Pu Ju Pa Fên Chên Kuo Kung: "lesser prince guarding the dynasty, not encroaching on the eight privileges", the title of a Prince of the Blood of the seventh rank. Pu Ju Pa Fên Fu Kuo Kung: "lesser bulwark prince not encroaching on the eight privileges", the title of a Prince of the Blood of the eighth rank. Shao Pao: Junior Guardian.
Shên-Wu Mên: Gate of the Divine Warrior or Spiritual Valour. Sheng Chu: the August Master or, Lord. A popular appellation for the Emperor Shih Nü: serving woman.
Shou Ling: lineage head within the Juelo. Shu Fei: Pure Secondary Consort of the second rank, second grade. Shun Chih: "favourable sway". Sing Fu: Justice Ministry. Ta Ch'en: Minister of State.
Ta Ch'ing Ch'ao: "the great pure dynasty", the name adopted for the Manchu dynasty by Emperor T'ai Tsung on 15th May 1636. Ta Ch'ing Ta Huang Ti: the Great Illustrious Emperor of the Great Pure Dynasty, the official title of the Emperors of China between 1644 and 1924. Ta Fujin: chief wife.
Ta Nei: 'the Great Within', i.e. the Forbidden City. Ta Yüan Shuai: generalissimo, or supreme commander-in-chief. Ta Ying: female attendant. T'ai Fei: Dowager Consort. Tai Ho Tien: the Hall of Supreme Harmony, venue in the Forbidden City, for the enthronement ceremony for a new Emperor. T'ai Miao: Supreme Temple of the Ancestors. T'ai Pao: Grand Guardian.
Tan Yu Ling: "jade years". Tao-kuang: "glory of right principle". T'ai Chi (or Daidji): a Mongol noble title borne by the younger sons of a Princess of the first or secod rank.
T'ai Fu: Grand Tutor (to the Heir Apparent). T'ai Ho Tien: Hall of Supreme Harmony. T'ai Huang T'ai Hou: Grand Empress Dowager, a title usually bestowed on the Emperor's paternal grandmother. T'ai Miao: Grand Temple.
T'ai Shang Huang Ti: "the father of the Emperor" or "Superior Emperor", a title used for the father of a reigning Emperor, if he is still alive during his son's reign. T'ai Tsung: "illustrious ancestor". T'ai Tzu: Heir Apparent. T'ai Tzu Shao Pao: Junior Guardian of the Heir Apparent.
T'ai Tzu T'ai Pao: Grand Guardian of the Heir Apparent.
Tang Chin Fo Yeh: "the Buddha of the present day", a popular appellation used for the Emperor. Ti: Emperor Ti Shih: Tutor to the Emperor. T'ien-ming: "will of Heaven". T'ien Tzu: "the Son of Heaven", a title of respect used for the Emperor. To Lo Chün Wang (originally Ho Shê To Lo Pei Lê): "prince of the gift" (from the Manchu, Dolo=gift), the title of a Prince of the Blood of the second rank, usually conferred on the sons of Emperors by Imperial Consorts. To Lo Pei Lê: the title of a Prince of the Blood of the third rank. To Lo Kung Chu: the title of a Princess of the Blood of the third rank. Ts'e Fu Chin: the title borne by the concubines of a Prince of the first or second ranks.
Tsung Kuan Nei Wu Fu Ta-ch'ien: Comptroller of the Imperial Household Department.
Tsung Nü: the title borne by daughters of a Noble of the Imperial Lineage below the sixth rank. Tsung Li Yamen: Ministry for Foreign Affairs. Tsung Shih: Imperial clansman. Tsung Yen Fu: Ministry for Imperial Affairs. Tung-chih: "united rule". Tung Hua Mên: the Gate of Eastern Glory.
Tzu, hereditary title of nobility of the fifth rank, translated as Viscount. Tzu-chin-ch'eng-êng: the Purple Forbidden City.
Tzu Hsi: "beneficent indulgence". Wan Jung: "beauty in flower". Wan Sui Yeh: "Lord of a Myriad (or Ten Thousand) Years", the Imperial style used in addresses. Wang: King, a title later used for a Imperial Princedom of the first (Ho Shê Ch'in Wang), or second (To Lo Chün Wang) rank. Wang Yeh: Imperial Highness. Wen Hsiu: "elegant ornament". Wen Tsung Hien Huang Ti: "ancestor of peace, glorious Emperor". Wu Mên: Noon Gate. Yang-hsin Tien: the Hall of Mental Cultivation. Yang-hsing Chai: the Lodge of the Nourishment of Nature. Yen Shêng Kung: "sacred prince". Yi-ho Yüan: the Park of the Cultivation of Harmonious Old Age, i.e. the country residence of the Emperor outside Peking known to Europeans as the Summer Palace. Yü-ch'ien T'ai-ch'ien: Eunuch of the Presence. Yü-ch'ing Kung: the Palace of the Bringing-forth of Blessings, the permanent residence of the Emperor Chia-ch'ing. Yü Hua Yüan: Imperial Gardens. Yü-lan T'ang: the Hall of the Waters of Rippling Jade, in the Summer Palace.
Yün Ch'i Yü: title of hereditary nobility in the ninth rank, not usually translated. Yung-cheng: "harmonious rectitude". Yung Ho Kung: Palace of Everlasting Harmony. Ze Fei: side chamber consort. Zong Fren Fu: Imperial Clan Court. Zong Shi: descendants of Taksai, entitled to wear the yellow belt and entitled to receive princely rank. Zuzhang: lineage head within the Zong Shi.