BURMA

GLOSSARY:
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Agga Maha Senapati: Commander-in-Chief.
Ainshe Min: 'Prince of the Eastern Palace', one of the titles of the Heir Apparent.
Ainshe Hteik Hta Mibura (or Ainshe Hteik Hta Mi-hpaya): 'Queen of the Eastern Palace', the title of the consort of the Heir Apparent.
Akauk Wun
: Revenue Officer.
Akhun Wun: Customs Officer.
Alaung Min Thaya Gyi: Embryo Buddha, Great Prince of Righteousness.
Ale-nandaw Mibura: Queen of the Centre Palace (the third most senior wife of the King), entitled to an umbrella of cloth interwoven with gold threads.
Ale-nandaw Hsinbyumashin Mibura Gyi: Queen of the White Elephants.
Amat: senior government official, minister.
Anauk-nandaw Mibura: Queen of the Western Palace (the fourth most senior wife of the King), entitled to an umbrella of cloth interwoven with gold threads.
Apyodaw: maid-of-honour.
Athet-u-san-paing-than-ashin
: 'Lord of life, head, and hair of all beings', one of the titles of the King.
Athi-wun: Minister for Works.
Atwin-wun: 'Interior Minister', the second rank of court official, corresponding to Minister of State.
Aweyauk: marshal of the court.
Awratha: the eldest son of the King, by his Chief Queen.
Bo: military commander, a rank equivalent to a full Colonel.
Bohmu: military commander of 10,000, a rank equivalent to Major-General.
Buring Khan: Viceroy.
Byanma Min: King of Burma.
Byetaik: Privy Council.
Heng: head of a province within a Shan state.
Hlutdaw: the Great Council of State, the principal administrative assembly discharging the functions of cabinet, legislature, and supreme court of law. The term also applied to the chamber in which the Great Council of State met.
Hmannan Apyodaw: 'maid of the crystal palace', the title of a maid-of-honour in the King's personal service.
Hmu: Captain.
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Hmudaw Matdaw: ministers and officials.
Hnitchaung sachun: the formal edicts and decrees issued by the Hlutdaw.
Hpaung-wun: Admiral commanding the fleet of Royal boats and barges.
Hsinbyumashin: 'Lady of the White Elephant'.
Hsinbyushin: 'Lord of the White Elephant'.
Htamong: head of a district within a Shan state, one rank below Heng.
Hteik Suhpaya: a princess born of pure Royal blood, from both parents.
Hteik Hkaung-tin: a princess born of a minor Queen.
Hteik Hta Mibura: the title of a princess after her marriage.
Hteik Tin: sons of a prince by a morganatic alliance.
Jaya Pyanchi (or zeya pyanchi): a title of honour conferred for gallantry in action, junior to Sri Pyanchi.
Kodaw-gyi (or Kodaw-myat Mibura): 'the noble person of the lord', the style of a prince born of a minor Queen.
Kolokdaw: collective term for the junior wives of the King.
Koyandaw: Officer of the Royal Bodyguard.
Kyemmong
: Heir Apparent of a Shan state.
Lokananda: formal name for the city of Pagan.
Lhwottau: Council of State.
Lubyodaw: gentleman-at-arms, royal page.
Magaitdaw: crown.
Maha Uparaja
: Great Deputy King, Viceroy, Crown Prince.
Maung: young man.
Maung-ma Meit-than: concubine.
Mibura
(Mi-hpaya): Queen.
Mibura-gale: minor Queen of non-Royal birth.
Mibura-haing: former Queen or Dowager Queen.
Min-zaw: King.
Minkasa Asaungmye: Officer of the Royal Household.
Mintaingbin: Councillor.
Mintha: prince, in general.
Mintha-gyi: Great Prince.
Mintha-lap: Junior Prince.
Minthami: Princess, in general.
Mukadaw mat-kadaw: wives of ministers and officials.
Myan Aung Taung-shwe-ye-saung Mibura: Queen of the Southern Golden Chamber (second Queen of the third rank of the King's wives).
Myauk-nandaw Mibura
: Queen of the Northern Palace (the second senior wife of the King), entitled to an umbrella of cloth interwoven with gold threads.
Myauk-saungdaw Mibura: Queen of the Northern Apartment (first Queen of the second rank of wives of the King).
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Myauk-shwe-ye-saung Mibura: Queen of the North Golden Chamber (first Queen of the third rank of wives of the King).
Myin-hmu: Colonel-Commandant of a Cavalry regiment.
Myin-hmu Min-tha: Prince, the highest rank of nobility attainable by those not of the Blood Royal, and conferred only on the nine great cavalry commanders.
Myin-sarey: adjutant of a cavalry regiment.
Myinsugyi Wun: Master of the Horse and commandant of the principal cavalry regiment.
Myin-tat-bo: Captain of a cavalry regiment.
Myo: town.
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Myosa (or Myoza): ruler of a sub-state or smaller state, officials deriving revenues from a town or district.
Myosa Mibura: junior wife of the King, holding a city or town assigned for her upkeep.
Myowun: governor of a city or town.
Myothugyi: Headman.
Nahkandaw
: King's Messenger.
Nammadaw Mibura Hkaung Gyi Mibura: the Chief Queen (usually a half-sister by the same father), she alone had the right to a white umbrella and to sit with the King on the divan-throne.
Ngwekunhmu: Ruler of smaller Shan states.
Rajaputra (Yaza pokta): 'royal son', a King's son by his Chief Queen.
Ratnapura (or Yedanabhoom): 'the Royal City of Gems', the formal name for Mandalay.
Sado (or Thado): 'courage, ability to accomplish'.
Saopha
(or sawbwa in Burmese): 'celestial prince', the title of a ruler of important Shan states (Thai).
Sarey: constable.
Sayadaw: Buddhist elder.
Sayedawgyi: Clerks of the Council, or Registrars of the Court.
Shwe: golden.
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Shwedabo: Colonel of an infantry regiment.
Shwedaung: 'golden hill', a reference to the King's palace, and hence, to the King himself.
Shwe Kodaw-gyi (or Shwe Kodaw-myat Mibura): 'the great golden person of the lord', the style of a prince born of pure royal blood, through both parents, i.e. His Royal Highness
Shwe-pason-si-hti: the umbrella used by the second, third and fourth most senior Queens.
Shwetaik: Exchequer, Treasury.
Shwetaik-wun: Chancellor of the Exchequer.
Singha Pyanchi (or theinka pyanchi): a title of honour conferred on those who suppressed dacoits and outlaws, junior to Jaya Pyanchi.
Sinha (or thiha): pali for lion.
Sit Thugyi Bohmu: full General.
Sitke: regimental officer.
Sri Pyanchi
(or thiri pyanchi): a title of honour conferred on officials.
Ratna: jewel.
Tabindaing: unmarried daughter of a King.
Tagahmu: Warden of the City and Palace.
Taramahkan: Judge of the Civil Court, Puisne Justice.
Taramathugyi: Lord Chief Justice of the Civil Court.
Tarasarey: Clerk of the Civil Court.
Taung-saungdaw Mibura: Queen of the Southern Apartment (second Queen of the second rank of wives of the King).
Thadaw: son.
Thamidaw: daughter.
Thamikanya: title of maid-of-honour when a daughter of a Shan Sawbwa.
Thandawgan: herald.
Thandawsin: the third rank of court official.
Thanhlyetdaw
: royal sceptre.
Thayahpudaw: crown.
Thugyi:
Tin-tin: daughters of a prince by a morganatic alliance.
Ukatdaw: crown.
Wun
: senior government official, minister.
Wundauk: Under Secretary of State, assistant to a Wungyi.
Wungyi: the highest rank of court official, corresponding to Secretary of State and Judge of the Court of Appeal,
Yedana (=ratna).
Yuwa: villiage.
Yuwa-Ok: Rural guardian.
Yuwasa: epithet for a person holding a village in fief.
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